【A-level化学】有机化学中涉及的化学反应大总结

2020-06-02  正领国际教育  
1.Alkane-chloroalkane reagents: Cl2conditions: UV lightmechanism: free radical substitutionequation: RH + Cl2=RCl + HCl 2.Alkene- polyalkene Conditions: low T,

1.Alkane-chloroalkane

 

reagents: Cl2

conditions: UV light

mechanism: free radical substitution

equation: RH + Cl2=RCl + HCl

 

2.Alkene- polyalkene

 

Conditions: low T, high p.

Equation:

【A-level化学】有机化学中涉及的化学反应大总结

 

Type of reaction: addition polymerisation (free radical)

 

3.Alkene-bromoalkane

 

Reagent: HX(g)

Conditions: room T

Equation:

【A-level化学】有机化学中涉及的化学反应大总结

 

Type of reaction: electrophilic addition

 

4.Alkene-dibromoalkane

 

Reagent: Br2 in water or in an organic solvent

Conditions: room T

Equation:

【A-level化学】有机化学中涉及的化学反应大总结

 

Mechanism: electrophilic addition

 

5.Alkene-alkylhydrogensulphate

 

Reagent: concentrated sulphuric acid

Conditions: cold

Equation:

【A-level化学】有机化学中涉及的化学反应大总结

 

Mechanism: electrophilic addition

 

6.Alkylhydrogensulphate-alcohol

 

Reagent: water

Conditions: warm

Equation:

【A-level化学】有机化学中涉及的化学反应大总结

Type of reaction: hydrolysis

 

7.Alkene-alcohol

 

Reagent: steam

Conditions: 300oC, 60 atm, H3PO4 catalyst

Equation:

【A-level化学】有机化学中涉及的化学反应大总结

 

Type of reaction: hydration

 

8.Haloalkane-alcohol

 

Reagent: NaOH(aq) or KOH(aq)

Conditions: warm under reflux

Equation: R-X + OH-= R-OH + X-

Type of reaction: nucleophilic substitution

 

9.Haloalkane-nitrile

 

Reagent: KCN in aqueous ethanol

Conditions: boil under reflux

Equation: R-X + CN- =R-CN + X-

Type of reaction: nucleophilic substitution

 

10.Haloalkane-Amine

 

Reagent: ammonia in ethanol in a sealed tube

Conditions: heat

Equation: R-X + 2NH3=R-NH2 + NH4X

Type of reaction: nucleophilic substitution

 

11.Haloalkane-alkene

 

Reagent: KOH in ethanol

Conditions: heat

Equation:

【A-level化学】有机化学中涉及的化学反应大总结

Type of reaction: elimination

 

12.Primary alcohol-aldehyde

 

Reagent: potassium dichromate and dilute sulphuric acid

Conditions: warm, distillation

Equation: RCH2OH + [O]=RCHO + H2O

Type of reaction: mild oxidation

 

13.Secondary alcohol-ketone

 

Reagent: potassium dichromate and dilute sulphuric acid

Conditions: heat, distillation

Equation: R1CH(OH)R2 + [O]=R1COR2 + H2O

Type of reaction: oxidation

 

14.aldehyde-carboxylic acid

 

Reagent: potassium dichromate and dilute sulphuric acid

Conditions: heat, reflux

Equation: R-CHO + [O]=R-COOH

Type of reaction: oxidation

 

15.Alcohols-alkenes

 

Reagent: concentrated sulphuric acid

Conditions: heat

Equation:

【A-level化学】有机化学中涉及的化学反应大总结

Type of reaction: elimination

 

16.glucose-ethanol

 

reagent: yeast

conditions: 35 – 55℃, no air

equation: C6H12O6=2C2H5OH + 2CO2

type of reaction: fermentation

 

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