托福阅读之主旨大意题

2019-12-12  正领国际教育  
这是一系列TOEFL阅读问题类型的一部分。在今天的帖子中,我们将讨论一个“ 主旨大意 ”问题。这种类型的问题要求你了解作者为什么包含了一条信息。由于此问题的答

 

这是一系列TOEFL阅读问题类型的一部分。在今天的帖子中,我们将讨论一个“ 主旨大意 ”问题。这种类型的问题要求你了解作者为什么包含了一条信息。由于此问题的答案未在阅读文章中直接说明,因此你需要了解该段落的要点以及所引用的信息与该段落的要点之间的关系才能解决此类问题。

 

这种问题通常如下:

Why does the author mention (X)?
The author mentions (X) in order to…
The author includes the information of (X) in order to…
The author uses (X) as an example of…
The author mentions (X) for which of the following reasons?
The author does (X) in order to…
What is the author’s purpose in mentioning…

 

答案可能包含有以下这些短语:

to show/to illustrate
to account for/to explain
to support/to refute/to oppose
to criticize/to question
to contrast/to compare

 

托福阅读练习:主旨大意问题

 

下面让我们看个例子:

 

[4]  Darwin's theory is that 'selective breeding' occurs in nature as 'natural selection' is the engine behind evolution. Thus, the theory provides an excellent basis for understanding how organisms change over time. Nevertheless, it is just a theory and elusively difficult to prove. One of the major holes in Darwin's theory revolves around “irreducibly complex systems.” An irreducibly complex system is known as a system where many different parts must all operate together. As a result, in the absence of one, the system as a whole collapses. Consequently, as modern technology improves, science can identify these “irreducibly complex systems” even at microscopic levels. These complex systems, if so inter-reliant, would be resistant to Darwin's supposition of how evolution occurs. As Darwin himself admitted, “To suppose that the eye with all its inimitable contrivances for adjusting the focus for different distances, for admitting different amounts of light, and for the correction of spherical and chromatic aberration, could have been formed by natural selection, seems, I free confess, absurd in the highest degree.

 

Question: In paragraph 4, what was the author's purpose of including a quote that the belief that the complexity of the human eye could have been formed by natural selection seems highly unlikely?

A. To provide evidence that irreducibly complex systems exist

B. The proof that the natural selection contradicts the basis of Darwin

C. The support that the natural selection contributes to the basis of Darwin

D. The support the claim that natural selection is just a theory and difficult to prove

 

D是正确答案。引文显示,即使是创立该理论的达尔文,也承认某些事件难以置信且难以证明。A是不正确的,因为引号没有提供证明无法简化的复杂系统存在的信息。B和C是不正确的,因为引号没有说自然选择的想法是对理论的贡献还是与之矛盾。

 

如何回答主旨大意题?

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

这些问题不仅需要英语技能。他们需要批判性思维。你需要做的是尝试确定作者为何包含此信息。以下是回答目标问题的5条提示:

1. 仔细阅读问题并了解你的要求

2. 确保你了解整个段落。 

3. 寻找过渡词。这些通常是作者为什么包含某些信息的重要线索。

4. 考虑该段的大图。通常,问题与该段落试图呈现的内容有关。 

5.使用过程中排除。如果答案过于极端( none, never, forever, always等等之类的单词),未提及或根据本段中的信息不正确,答案通常是错误的。

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

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托福阅读题型:推理题

托福阅读题型:词汇推测题

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